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AbstractMORETTI, A. (Dipartimento di Biologia vegetale, Facolta di Scienze, Universita di Napoli,¬†via Foria 223, Napoli, Italy) Cytotaxonomy of cycads. Memoirs of The New York Botanical¬†Garden 57: 114√Ę‚ā¨‚Äú122. 1990. Nine genera of cycads have been examined from a cytotaxonomic¬†point of view. Karyotypic data, most of which are newly described, are figured and discussed¬†from a phylogenetic point of view. Robertsonian changes, which involve centric fission or¬†fusion, chromosome loss and chromosome deletion, are proposed to explain karyotype¬†differentiation in Zamia, the only genus with interspecific chromosome variation. On the¬†basis of these mechanisms, a scheme showing the evolution of karyotypes in Zamia is¬†presented. The scheme appears realistic enough even though it does not show correlation¬†with morphological and taxonomic characters of Zamia species. Two cases of infraspecific¬†chromosome variation; Z. roezli¬†with 2n = 22, 24, 25, 26 and Z. paucijuga with 2n = 19,¬†23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, are also discussed. The Robertsonian changes involved in the karyotypic¬†differentiation of nine genera of cycads would be the loss of chromosomes, the rearrangement¬†of large genomic segments, centric fission, and the deletion of chromosome pieces¬†or arms. The different rates of change determined by such mechanisms in the karyotype of¬†each genus are used to single out four generic groupings: Bowenia; Stangeria; Encephalartos,¬†Lepidozamia, Macrozamia and Dioon; Zamia, Ceratozamia and Microcycas. Thus, groupings¬†of genera based on karyotypic characters parallel those of families and tribes of the¬†order as established by morphological criteria.




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