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Interest in cycad pollination biology has steadily increased since the 1980s, when the first definitive studies demonstrated that specialist insects were the pollen vectors of their cycad host. In this review several aspects of cycad pollination are discussed briefly, including the known and putative insect pollinators of cycads from different regions, sampling techniques to determine putative pollinator-adult habitats during coning or nonconing season, experiments on cones excluding/including insects or wind to determine their roles in pollination, cone thermogenesis and volatile emission studies, and behavioral studies of insect pollinators. In addition, understudied areas and new research questions and techniques are identified.
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